2 edition of Ionization of alkali-metal atoms by proton impact. found in the catalog.
Ionization of alkali-metal atoms by proton impact.
Robert William McCullough
Written in English
Thesis (Ph. D.)--The Queens" University of Belfast, 1971.
|The Physical Object|
p+Na collisions have been investigated theoretically and experimentally at impact energies in the keV regime. We present results for capture and ionization processes, and, in part. Gold targets have been irradiated with Bev protons and the yields of cesium, barium, and rubidiuam nuclides investigated by mass spectrometry. A high- sensitivity surface-ionization technique, using a multiple filament source arrangement and capable of determining (within 5%) 10/sup 8/ alkali metal atoms, was developed.
The differences in the acid ionization constants for the successive ionizations of the protons in a polyprotic acid usually vary by roughly five orders of magnitude. As long as the difference between the successive values of K a of the acid is greater than about a factor of 20, it is appropriate to break down the calculations of the. Tabet J, Eden S, Feil S, Abdoul-Carime H, Farizon B, Farizon M, Ouaskit S and Märk T D Absolute total and partial cross sections for ionization of nucleobases by proton impact in the Bragg peak velocity range Phys. Rev. A 82 Crossref Google Scholar.
alkali metal aluminium ammonia anhydrous anion aqueous solution Atomic and Physical atomic number beryllium boron bromide carbon cation chemical chemistry chloride chromium cobalt colour colourless compounds concentrated containing coordination number copper covalent crystal ﬁeld crystalline decomposes diamagnetic dimeric donor electron Reviews: 3. The interaction between two ground state hydrogen atoms in a collision was studied using the four-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. We present the total cross sections for the dominant channels, namely for the single ionization of the target, the ionization of the projectile, resulting from pure ionization, and also from the electron transfer (capture or loss) processes.
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An ion (/ ˈ aɪ ɒ n,-ən /) is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical the charge of the electron (considered negative by convention) is equal and opposite to that of the proton (considered positive by convention), the net charge of an ion is non-zero due to its total number of electrons being unequal to its total number of protons.A cation is a positively charged ion.
Ian W.M. Smith MA, PhD, in Kinetics and Dynamics of Elementary Gas Reactions, Reactions of alkali-metal dimers 6. When alkali-metal atoms (M) expand through a supersonic nozzle, a high proportion of dimer molecules (M 2) are formed as the gas lly, dimers constitute about 25 per cent of the species in the beam after the expansion is complete.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation, traveling as a particle or electromagnetic wave, that carries sufficient energy to detach electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing an atom or a molecule.
Ionizing radiation is made up of energetic subatomic particles, ions or atoms moving at high speeds (usually greater than 1% of the speed of light), and electromagnetic waves on.
The total single ionization cross sections of alkali‐metal atoms (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) have been calculated in the binary‐encounter approximation (BEA) using the Hartree–Fock velocity distribution function for the bound electron.
The calculated cross sections are compared with the experimental data. The BEA results agree with the observations to within a factor of 2– by: 3. The total cross-section for proton impact excitation of some low lying autoionizing levels in alkali metal atoms have been calculated using Born appro Cited by: 2.
Volume 35A, number 3 Ionization of alkali-metal atoms by proton impact. book LETTERS 31 May PROTON IMPACT EXCITATION FOR ALKALI ATOMS K. MATHUR, A.
TRIPATHI and S. JOSHI Physics Department, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India Received 22 April The excitation cross-sections due to proton impact for the resonance transitions of alkali metal atoms Li, Na and Cs have been. It is perhaps surprising that a process which was one of the first to be studied on an atomic scale, and a process which first received attention over seven decades ago, continues to be the object of diverse and intense research efforts.
Such is the case with the (seemingly) conceptually simple and familiar mechanism of electron impact ionization of atoms, molecules, and ions.
The ionization of hydrogen atoms by proton (antiproton) is studied at the relatively high impact energy of 75 keV, using the closured second Born and the first Born approximations. The kinematical parameters (electron energy and projectile scattering angle) were chosen to be those of quantum mechanical investigations of the process available in.
Single-electron ionization and excitation cross sections as well as cross sections for excitation into the first excited p state of the alkali metal atoms Li(2s), Na(3s) and K(4s) colliding with. Physica 93C () North-Holland Publishing Company OUTER S-SHELL IONIZATION OF NOBLE GAS ATOMS BY PROTON IMPACT S.
TIWARY and P. CHATTERJEE Department of Physics, G. College, Bihar University, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India Received 19 April Proton impact outer S-shell ionization cross sections of noble gas atoms have been calculated in a.
Electron ionization is widely used in mass spectrometry, particularly for organic molecules. The gas phase reaction producing electron ionization is + − + ∙ + − where M is the atom or molecule being ionized, − is the electron, and + ∙ is the resulting ion.
The electrons may be created by an arc discharge between a cathode and an anode. An electron beam ion source (EBIS) is used in. The observation that clusters of neutral H2O or SO2 (ref. 5) molecules, on impact with essentially any solid surface, can decay efficiently into positively and negatively charged fragments has.
In this work a nonperturbative, time-dependent numerical approach is developed which describes ionization and excitation of atoms or molecules by either antiproton (PB) or proton impact based on. Electron ionization (EI, formerly known as electron impact ionization and electron bombardment ionization) is an ionization method in which energetic electrons interact with solid or gas phase atoms or molecules to produce ions.
EI was one of the first ionization techniques developed for mass spectrometry. However, this method is still a popular ionization technique.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding shells of the boundary is not a well-defined physical entity, there are various non-equivalent definitions of atomic radius.
Three widely used definitions of atomic radius are: Van der Waals radius. Large atoms or molecules have low ionization energy, while small molecules tend to have higher ionization energies. The ionization energy is different for electrons of different atomic or molecular orbitals.
More generally, the nth ionization energy is the energy required to strip off the nth electron after the first n-1 electrons have been. Cross sections for double ionization by electron impact for noble gas atoms have been calculated using Gryzinski's classical expression.
The effect of including ionization from the inner shell has been discussed in connection with possible Auger emission. Experimental Results.- Positive Surface Ionization for Alkali Metal Atoms in Weak Electric Fields.- Positive Surface Ionization of Some Alkali-Salt Molecules on Metal Surfaces in Weak External Fields.- Positive Surface Ionization of Alkaline Earth Elements and Compounds in Weak External Fields.- Atoms, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal.
Atoms (ISSN ; CODEN: ATOMC5) is an international, peer-reviewed and cross-disciplinary scholarly journal of scientific studies related to all aspects of the atom published quarterly online by MDPI. Open Access —free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by authors or their institutions.
ionization of neutral atoms with outer 2p and 3p electrons by electron and proton impact. Journal Article Peach, G - J. Phys., B (London), 1: (Nov. DOI: //1/6/. Ionization of atoms by proton impact, as predicted by the classical binary-encounter approximation, is examined and compared with available experimental data on the noble-gas and alkali-metal atoms.2.
First Ionization Energy. The first ionization energy of a component or particle is the energy required to move the most loosely held electron from one mole of vaporous atoms of the component or atoms to shape one mole of vaporous particles with electric charge +1.Using the empirical formula recently proposed, electron-impact ionization cross-sections for single ionization from the ground state are given for free atoms and for all ionization stages from.